Dinamics of Group B Streptococcus and Enterococcus faecalis associated with genital tract infections of dairy cows from two farms of county Iași
Keywords:Dairy cows; Group B Streptococcus; Enterococcus faecalis, Uterine infection
Abstract: The involution of the postpartum bovine uterus is accompanied by bacterial invasion. Studies show that most, if not all, bovine uteri are bacterially contaminated in the immediate postpartum period. The culture at this time will usually produce a wide range of bacteria, including Actinomyces pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Clostridium spp., Coliforms and Gram-negative anaerobes.
The research is part of a larger study that aimed to isolate and identify potentially pathogenic bacteria from uterine secretions and their role in postpartum infections. To isolate and identify the uterine flora, swabs (n=160) were collected from the lumen of 32 dairy cattle, between 3 to >21 DIM. Bacterial microflora has been monitored for 5 weeks. The samples were passed through all stages of the microbiological examination and the results revealed the presence of the species Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis.
At the first examination Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated in 8 (25%) of 32 samples, and Streptococcus agalactiae in monoculture was isolated in 4 (12,5%) of 32 samples. At the second and third examination the number of Streptococcus agalactiae in monoculture decreased. At 21 days after parturition Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated in 11 (34,38%) of 32 samples and Streptococcus agalactiae in monoculture was found in 9 (28,12%) of cows. The presence of these bacterial species with pathogenic potential for cattle and humans, highlights a possible zoonotic risk.
Keywords: Dairy cows; Group B Streptococcus; Enterococcus faecalis, Uterine infection
Ballas, P., Reinländer, U., Schlegl, R., Ehling-Schulz, M., Drillich, M., & Wagener, K. Characterization of intrauterine culti-vable aerobic microbiota at the time of insemination in dairy cows with and without mild endometritis. Theriogenology 2021, 159, 28-34.
Beukers, A. G., Zaheer, R., Goji, N., Amoako, K. K., Chaves, A. V., Ward, M. P., & McAllister, T. A. Comparative genomics of Enterococcus spp. isolated from bovine feces. BMC microbiology 2017, 17(1), 1-18.
Bisharat, N., Crook, D. W., Leigh, J., Harding, R. M., Ward, P. N., Coffey, T. J. Jones, N. Hyperinvasive neonatal group B streptococcus has arisen from a bovine ancestor. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2004, 42(5), 2161-2167.
Brochet, M., Couvé, E., Zouine, M., Vallaeys, T., Rusniok, C., Lamy, M. C. Glaser, P. Genomic diversity and evolution within the species Streptococcus agalactiae. Microbes and Infection 2006, 8(5), 1227-1243.
Carneiro, L. C., Cronin, J. G., & Sheldon, I. M. Mechanisms linking bacterial infections of the bovine endometrium to disease and infertility. Reproductive biology 2016, 16(1), 1-7.
Cobo-Angel C.G., Jaramillo-Jaramillo A.S., Palacio-Aguilera M., Jurado-Vargas L., Calvo-Villegas E.A., Ospina-Loaiza D.A., Rodriguez-Lecompte J.C., Sanchez J., Zadoks R., Ceballos-Marquez A. Potential group B Streptococcus interspecies transmis-sion between cattle and people in Colombian dairy farms. Sci Rep. 2019, Oct 1; 9(1):14025.
Drugociu, D. and Drugociu D.S. Patologie genitală şi a glandei mamare la animale. Editura" Ion Ionescu de la Brad 2015.
Elliott, L., McMahon, K. J., Gier, H. T., & Marion, G. B. (1968). Uterus of the cow after parturition: bacterial con-tent. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1968, 29(1), 77-81.
Hanna, M., & Noor, A. Streptococcus Group B. StatPearls 2020 [Internet].
Ho, M., Chang, Y. Y., Chang, W. C., Lin, H. C., Wang, M. H., Lin, W. C., & Chiu, T. H. Oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 to reduce Group B Streptococcus colonization in pregnant women: a randomized controlled tri-al. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2016, 55(4), 515-518.
Hou, R., Chen, C., Fu, Y., Liu, Y., Li, L., Hao, Y., & Huang, S. Analysis of microbial flora in dairy cows vagina, and the isola-tion and identification of Lactobacillus. Zhongguo Weishengtaxixue Zazhi/Chinese Journal of Microecology 2011, 23(5), 393-397.
Huszenicza, G., Fodor, M., Gacs, M., Kulcsar, M., Dohmen, M. J. W., Vamos, M., Szita, G. Uterine bacteriology, resumption of cyclic ovarian activity and fertility in postpartum cows kept in large‐scale dairy herds. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 1999, 34(3‐4), 237-245.
Jensen, N. E. Experimental bovine group-B streptococcal mastitis induced by strains of human and bovine origin. Nordisk veterinaermedicin 1982 34.12: 441-45
Jørgensen, H. J., Nordstoga, A. B., Sviland, S., Zadoks, R. N., Sølverød, L., Kvitle, B., & Mørk, T. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds–rewriting the textbooks?. Veterinary microbiology 2016, 184, 64-72.
Knudsen, L. R. V., Karstrup, C. C., Pedersen, H. G., Angen, Ø., Agerholm, J. S., Rasmussen, E. L., Klitgaard, K. An investiga-tion of the microbiota in uterine flush samples and endometrial biopsies from dairy cows during the first 7 weeks postpar-tum. Theriogenology 2016, 86(2), 642-650.
LeBlanc, S. J., Duffield, T. F., Leslie, K. E., Bateman, K. G., Keefe, G. P., Walton, J. S., & Johnson, W. H. Defining and diagnos-ing postpartum clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Journal of dairy science 2002, 85(9), 2223-2236.
Leutert, C., Von Krueger, X., Plöntzke, J., Heuwieser, W. Evaluation of vaginoscopy for the diagnosis of clinical endometritis in dairy cows. Journal of dairy science 2012, 95(1), 206-212.
Patras, K. A., Nizet, V. Group B streptococcal maternal colonization and neonatal disease: molecular mechanisms and pre-ventative approaches. Frontiers in Pediatrics 2018, 6, 27.
Pleticha, S., Drillich, M., & Heuwieser, W. Evaluation of the Metricheck device and the gloved hand for the diagnosis of clinical endometritis in dairy cows. Journal of dairy science 2009, 92(11), 5429-5435.
Prunner I., Wagener K., Pothmann H., Ehling-Schulz M., Drillich M. Risk factors for uterine diseases on small- and medi-um-sized dairy farms determined by clinical, bacteriological, and cytological examinations. Theriogenology 2014; 82:857–65
Pulfer, K. W., and R. L. Riese. "Treatment of postpartum metritis in dairy cows." Iowa State University Veterinarian 1991, 53.1: 6.
Runceanu, L., Cotea, C., Drugociu, D., Roşca, P. Reproducţie, obstetrică şi ginecologie veterinară. Ed.” Ion Ionescu de la Brad Iaşi. 2001
Sheldon, I. M., & Dobson, H. Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Animal reproduction science 2004, 82, 295-306.
Sheldon, I. M., Lewis, G. S., LeBlanc, S., Gilbert, R. O. Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 2006, 65(8), 1516-1530.
Sikra, A. A., Rîmbu C., and Drugociu D. Impact of staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) on uterine disease in dairy cattle after parturition. Scientific papers veterinary medicine 2020, 63(3), 261-267
Sun, J., Fang, W., Ke, B., He, D., Liang, Y., Ning, D., Deng, X. Inapparent Streptococcus agalactiae infection in adult/commercial tilapia. Scientific reports 2016, 6(1), 1-11.
Wagener, K., Grunert, T., Prunner, I., Ehling-Schulz, M., Drillich, M. Dynamics of uterine infections with Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis and Trueperella pyogenes in post-partum dairy cows and their association with clinical endometritis. The Veterinary Journal 2014, 202(3), 527-532.
Wang, Y., Ametaj, B. N., Ambrose, D. J., & Gänzle, M. G. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici. BMC microbiology 2013, 13(1), 1-11.
Wang, J., Sun, C., Liu, C., Yang, Y., & Lu, W. Comparison of vaginal microbial community structure in healthy and endome-tritis dairy cows by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR. Anaerobe 2016, 38, 1-6.
Willems, R. J., Top, J., Marga van Santen, D., Coque, T. M., Baquero, F., Grundmann, H., & Bonten, M. J. Global spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from distinct nosocomial genetic complex. Emerging infectious diseases 2005, 11(6), 821.
Williams, E. J., Fischer, D. P., Pfeiffer, D. U., England, G. C., Noakes, D. E., Dobson, H., & Sheldon, I. M. Clinical evaluation of postpartum vaginal mucus reflects uterine bacterial infection and the immune response in cattle. Theriogenology 2005, 63(1), 102-117.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Cluj Veterinary Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.